Allied Academies invites all the participants from all over the world to attend ‘International Conference on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases’ which is going to be held on September 03-04, 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand. It includes prompt Oral talks, Keynote Presentations, Special Sessions, Workshops, Symposiums, Poster Presentations and Exhibitions.
Allied Academic Publication is an amalgamation of several esteemed academic and scientific associations known for promoting scientific temperament. Established in the year 1997, Andrew John Publishing Group is a specialized Medical publisher that operates in collaboration with the association and societies. This publishing house has been built on the base of esteemed academic and research institutions including The College of Audiologists and Speech Language Pathologists of Ontario(CASLPO), The Association for Public Safety Communications Officials of Canada (APCO), The Canadian Vascular Access Association (CVAA), The Canadian Society of Internal Medicine (CSIM), The Canadian Hard of Hearing Association (CHHA), Sonography Canada, Canadian Association of Pathologists (CAP-ACP) and The Canadian Association of Neurophysiologic Monitoring (CANM).
Why to Attend?
The sector of AIDS and STDs is growing apace and its development is creating tremendous impacts in medical sciences and prescription drugs. The importance and significance may be gauged by the actual fact that it's created brobdingnagian advancements over the course of your time and is constant to influence varied sectors. STD-AIDS program can showcase new knowledge domain and offers a platform for professionals and community members to interact in a very structured dialogue on the main problems. The collective goal are going to be to share scientific discoveries and clinical care on HIV and retroviral diseases, HIV designation and medical care that will embrace varied strategies to techniques to diagnose HIV, HIV drug discovery, infectious agent and microorganism STDs, STIs, like Herpes, Syphilis, HPV etc. ways for HIV and STDs interference, ethics etc. As HIV/AIDS is Associate in Nursing horrifying concern throughout the planet, STD-AIDS-2018 can in the main concentrate on problems like Primary HIV Infection, Transmission and demolition problems except this HIV Co-infection, HIV Current pharmaceutical style would cowl the experimental medication developed.
- Business Delegates
- Health care professionals
- STD-AIDS associations and societies
We are delighted to welcome you to the ‘International Conference on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases’ which is going to be held on September 03-04, 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand.
The field of STD (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) is growing rapidly and its development is making tremendous impacts in medical sciences and pharmaceuticals. The importance and significance can be gauged by the fact that it has made huge advancements over the course of time and is continuing to influence various sectors.
STD-AIDS 2018 conference could be a global platform for sharing and exploring new areas of research and development and to assess rising technologies in the field of STD-AIDS. There will be many seminars, workshops, and technical sessions take place in this Allied Academies which will catch the attention of the professionals to attend the conference further which will enormously enrich our knowledge in understanding the current requirements of the global Sexually Transmitted Diseases. The expert will get an excellent opportunity to give many presentations and lectures on different topics.
So, we invite all the Doctors, Scientists, Professors and Researchers in the field of STD, STI, HIV/AIDS and its related areas people who believe in cure to explore their research, case studies and practitioners at STD-AIDS 2018.
STDs are infections that are passed from one person to a different person during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. They’re really common, and lots of people who have them don’t have any symptoms. Sexually transmitted diseases can be unsafe, however the great news is that getting tested is no big deal, and most STDs are simple to treat. Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, and pelvic pain. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, yeast and viruses. Sexually transmitted contaminations, likewise alluded to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are diseases that are usually spread by sex, particularly vaginal intercourse, butt-centric sex or oral sex. Most STIs initially do not cause symptoms. This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Side effects and indications of infection may incorporate vaginal release, penile release, ulcers nearby the private parts, and pelvic agony. STIs acquired before or during birth may result in poor outcomes for the baby. Some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant. Most STIs initially do not cause symptoms. This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others.
2: HIV/ AIDS
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The infection can prompt AIDS, or AIDS, if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it for life. HIV assaults the body's safe framework, particularly the CD4 cells (T cells), which enable the resistant framework to fend off contaminations. Untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get other infections or infection-related cancers. After some time, HIV can decimate such a significant number of these cells that the body can't fend off contaminations and sickness. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection. Helps is the most serious period of HIV contamination. People with AIDS have such badly damaged immune systems that they get an increasing number of severe illnesses, called opportunistic infections. AIDS is not a virus but a set of symptoms (or syndrome) caused by the HIV virus. A man is said to have AIDS when their invulnerable framework is excessively frail, making it impossible to fend off contamination, and they build up certain characterizing side effects and diseases. This is the last phase of HIV, when the contamination is exceptionally best in class, and if left untreated will prompt passing.
There are a number of infections and cancers that can develop in people who are living with HIV. There are infections that can be life threatening. These are also known as opportunistic infections. The more common life-threatening infections include a lung infection called Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), an eye infection caused by Cytomegalovirus (CMV), a brain infection called toxoplasmosis, and a generalized infection called Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC). Cancers that are more common include Hodgkin’s lymphoma, lung cancer, skin cancer, anal cancer, cervical and vaginal cancer in women and testicular and prostate cancer in men. These cancers can often be successfully treated if they occur in people with HIV who maintain healthy immune systems with HIV treatment. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is the utilization of HIV medications to treat HIV disease. HIV medicines protect the immune system by blocking HIV at different stages of the HIV life cycle. HIV medicines are grouped into different drug classes according to how they fight HIV. Each class of drugs is designed to target a specific step in the HIV life cycle. ART consolidates HIV medications from no less than two distinctive HIV sedate classes, making it exceptionally successful at keeping HIV from duplicating. Having less HIV in the body protects the immune system and prevents HIV from advancing to AIDS. ART also reduces the risk of HIV drug resistance. ART can't cure HIV, however HIV drugs enable individuals with HIV to live more, beneficial lives. HIV medicines also reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
The relationship between infertility, birth defects with infection is long known. A symptomatic infections caused by certain infections are more devastating as the absence or lack of symptoms prevents the patients from seeking timely medical intervention which consequently leads to chronic damage of the pelvic organs. Chlamydia, among the most widely recognized sexually transmitted infections, influences an expected 100,000 pregnant ladies every year, as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Premature birth of the baby which happens before 37 weeks of the pregnancy. Birth defects which is the abnormal shapes and function of the baby. PID, or Pelvic inflammatory disease, is a contamination that happens in organs of a ladies' conceptive framework that incorporate the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and cervix. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are foremost causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. A low sperm motility and low sperm count are indicators of STDs condition in male that may lead to infertility. Trichomoniasis can adversely affect a woman’s ability to conceive a child if left untreated. This is one of the mainstream system in which sperm is specifically infused into the egg — intra-cytoplasmic sperm infusion, or ICSI — was related with an expanded danger of birth deserts, as was home utilization of an ovulation incitement prescription.
infections treatment such as HIV comprises patient care and ethical support
including antiretroviral therapy. Bacterial infections can be treated by
administering antibiotics to
the patients. Bacterial STDs can be cured with antibiotics if treatment begins
early enough. Viral STDs cannot be cured, but can manage symptoms with
medications. Yeast infections can be primarily treated by sterilization methods.
Getting vaccinated early, before sexual exposure, is also effective in
preventing certain types of STIs. There is no cure for HIV, but with proper
treatment called “antiretroviral therapy” (ART),
it is possible to maintain a low viral count and live a nearly normal life
expectancy of up to 50 years. The most ideal approach to avert HIV/AIDS is by
maintaining a strategic distance from high-chance exercises related with
illness transmission, for example, dangerous sex and needle sharing. HIV drugs
include: Reverse transcriptase inhibitors. HIV uses its own reverse
transcriptase enzyme to synthesize DNA from RNA.
The function of this enzyme is required for viral replication in the host cell.
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
directly inhibit the activity of this enzyme. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase
are faulty mimics of the building blocks used by the enzyme to synthesize DNA. Protease
inhibitors. HIV protease is another protein that is basic to the viral life
cycle. Protease inhibitors are molecules that block the activity of this
enzyme. Integrase inhibitors. The integrase enzyme allows HIV to insert its
genetic material into its host cells. Molecules that inhibit HIV integrase
block this essential step. Entry/fusion inhibitors. These medications keep the
infection from connecting to and entering CD4+ T cells.
transmission of HIV is the spread of HIV from a HIV-contaminated lady to
her tyke amid pregnancy,
labor (likewise called work and conveyance), or breastfeeding (through
breast milk). Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also
called perinatal transmission
of HIV. Mother-to-child transmission is the most widely recognized way that
kids end up noticeably tainted with HIV. Mother-to-tyke transmission is the
most widely recognized way that kids wind up noticeably tainted with HIV.
Pregnant women with HIV receive HIV medicines during pregnancy and childbirth to
prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In a few circumstances, a lady
with HIV may have a planned cesarean conveyance (now and again called a C-segment)
to avert mother-to-kid transmission of HIV amid conveyance. Children destined
to ladies with HIV get HIV prescription for 4 to a month and a half after
birth. The HIV pharmaceutical lessens the danger of contamination from any HIV
that may have entered an infant's
body amid labor. Since HIV can be transmitted in bosom drain, ladies
with HIV living in the United States ought not breastfeed their infants. In the
United States, baby formula is a safe and healthy alternative to breast milk.
In the event that a lady takes HIV prescriptions amid pregnancy and labor and
her infant gets HIV pharmaceutical
for 4 to a month and a half after birth, the danger of transmitting HIV can be
brought down to 1% or less.
An entire investigation of momentum inclines in the irresistible ailments remedial and demonstrative market, industry development drivers, propelled treatments and restrictions. It provides market projections for the coming years. It includes analysis of recent developments in technologies of infection diagnosis and treatment. Contextual analyses concentrate on intense respiratory contaminations, diarrheal sicknesses, hepatitis, HIV, tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, jungle fever, and other vector-borne ailments. Report of a 45-year-old male farmer, a resident in the forest zone of Pernambuco, who was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1999 and treated using antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. In 2005, the first episode of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as assessed by parasitological diagnosis of bone marrow aspirate, was recorded. When admitted to the hospital, the patient presented fever, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss, and diarrhea. Since then, six additional episodes of VL occurred, with a frequency rate of one per year. In 2011, the patient presented a disseminated skin lesion caused by the amastigotes of Leishmania, as identified by histopathological assessment of skin biopsy samples. In 2005, he was treated with N-methyl-glucamine-antimony and amphotericin B deoxycholate. However, since 2006 because of a reported toxicity, the drug of choice was liposomal amphotericin B. As recommended by the Ministry of Health, this report emphasizes the need for HIV patients living in VL endemic areas to include this parasitosis in their follow-up protocol, particularly after the first infection of VL.
Medication disclosure is the procedure through which potential new prescriptions are recognized. It involves a wide range of scientific disciplines, including biology, chemistry and pharmacology. The identification of viral and cellular drug targets is essential for fueling the drug development pipeline. Early medication disclosure endeavors focused on a moderately modest number of viral targets, for example, HIV switch transcriptase (a compound that catalyzes the union of viral DNA inside contaminated cells from the RNA layout conveyed by irresistible virions) and HIV protease (a chemical that cuts and procedures viral antecedent proteins permitting virion development). Treatment regimens containing combinations of reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors, commonly known as highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART, revolutionized the treatment of people with HIV by markedly lowering viral load and decreasing the incidence of AIDS-associated opportunistic infections. In the past most drugs have been discovered either by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. Another approach has been to see how sickness and disease are controlled at the sub-atomic and physiological level and to target particular substances in view of this information. The process of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, synthesis, characterization, screening, and assays for therapeutic efficacy. Once a compound has demonstrated its incentive in these tests, it will start the procedure of medication improvement preceding clinical trials.
A HIV vaccine is an antibody which would either secure people who don't have HIV from getting that infection, or generally may have a remedial impact for people who have or later contract HIV/AIDS. Currently, there is no effective HIV vaccine but many research projects managing clinical trials seek to create one. There is evidence that a vaccine may be possible. Protection medicines, for example, antiretroviral medications have been put into utilization to help forestall contamination, however don't act and additionally an Vaccine would. Work with monoclonal antibodies (MAB) has shown or proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV, and certain individuals remain asymptomatic for decades after HIV infection. Potential possibility for antibodies and beginning time comes about because of clinical trials have been declared. Alternative medical treatments to a vaccine do exist. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available. HAART permits the adjustment of the patient's indications and viremia; however they don't cure the patient of HIV, nor of the manifestations of AIDS. And, importantly, HAART does nothing to prevent the spread of HIV by people with undiagnosed infections. Acquaintance of more secure sex measures with stop the spread of AIDS has demonstrated troublesome in the most noticeably awful influenced nations. Therefore, an HIV vaccine is generally considered as the most likely, and perhaps the only way by which the AIDS pandemic can be halted. In any case, after more than 30 years of research, HIV-1 remains a troublesome focus for a Vaccine.
Infectious diseases are disarranges caused by living beings, for example, microscopic organisms, infections, parasites or fungi. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful, but under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are small living things that are found wherever - in air, water and soil. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections. Infectious diseases, kill a huge number of people worldwide than any other reason. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. People can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections. They are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, parasites and fungi. Germs can be spread by direct or indirect contact. Zoonotic diseases example Anthrax are transmittable diseases of animals that can cause disease when transmitted to humans.
Viral Infectious Disease happens when a life form's body is attacked by pathogenic infections, and irresistible infection particles (virions) append to and enter powerless cells. There are many types of viruses that cause a wide variety of viral diseases. The most widely recognized kind of viral sickness is the basic chilly, which is caused by a viral disease of the upper respiratory tract (nose and throat). Viral diseases are contagious and spread from person to person when a virus enters the body and begins to multiply. Viral ailments result in a wide assortment of manifestations that fluctuate in character and seriousness relying upon the sort of viral contamination and different components, including the individual's age and general wellbeing.
Microscopic organisms are living things that have just a single cell. Under a microscope, they look like balls, rods, or spirals. They are so small that a line of 1,000 could fit across a pencil eraser. Most microorganisms won't hurt you - under 1 percent of the distinctive kinds influence individuals to wiped out. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body needed vitamins. Bacteria are also used in making healthy foods like yogurt and cheese. But infectious bacteria can make you ill. They reproduce quickly in your body. Numerous emit chemicals called poisons, which can harm tissue and influence you to wiped out. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli. Antibiotics are the usual treatment. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. Each time you take antibiotics, you increase the chances that bacteria in your body will learn to resist them causing antibiotic resistance. Afterward, you could get or spread a disease that those anti-microbials can't cure.
Fungi are everywhere. There are around 1.5 million unique types of growths on Earth, however just around 300 of those are known to influence individuals to wiped out. Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Parasites live outside in soil and on plants and trees and in addition on numerous indoor surfaces and on human skin. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Fungal diseases can affect anyone. Finding out about them can enable you and your specialist to perceive the side effects of a contagious ailment early and may help forestall genuine inconveniences. Fungal diseases are often caused by fungi that are common in the environment. Most fungi are not dangerous, but some types can be harmful to health. Mellow contagious skin illnesses can resemble a rash and are exceptionally normal. Parasitic infections in the lungs are frequently like different ailments, for example, this season's flu virus or tuberculosis. Some fungal diseases like fungal meningitis and bloodstream infections are less common than skin and lung infections but can be deadly.
Infectious diseases of animals are a major hazard to earthly animal health and welfare and their effective control is necessary for agronomic health, for defending and procuring national and international food supplies and for mitigating rural poverty in developing countries. Some catastrophic livestock diseases are regional in many parts of the world and threats from old and new pathogens continue to rise, with changes to worldwide climate, agricultural approaches and anthropology presenting conditions that are especially supportive for the spread of arthropod-borne diseases into new geographical fields. Zoonotic or phonetic infections that are transmissible either directly or indirectly between animals and humans are on the increase and pose serious additional risks to human health and the recent pandemic status of new influenza A (H1N1) is a topical illustration of the challenge presented by zonotic viruses.
Kids are at expanded danger of some irresistible illnesses since they don't have enough invulnerability to withstand, they tend to assemble in gatherings, and they may experience issues with a few parts of cleanliness. Pediatric Infectious Diseases is the branch of medicine that deals diagnosis, control and treatment of infections in infants, children, and adolescents.
Microbial pathogenesis is the investigation of the sub-atomic systems utilized by microorganisms to cause infection in people and creatures. By understanding how pathogens cause disease helps in the development of new therapeutic approaches. Virulence is the measure of the pathogenicity of an organism. The level of harmfulness is connected specifically to the capacity of the life form to cause disease not withstanding host protection components, it is influenced by various factors, for example, the quantity of tainting microscopic organisms, course of section into the body, particular and nonspecific host guard instruments and destructiveness variables of the bacterium.
Viral and immune mediated disorders of the nervous system are amongst the most threatening neurological disorders. The most common neuro immune disorder is multiple sclerosis whereas HIV is the most common viral infection of the nervous system. Common to both disorders is the dynamic loss of neurons, leading to significant intellectual and motor dysfunction.
Infectious diseases can be caused by bacteria, virus, fungi and parasites through direct contact, indirect contact, insect bites and food contamination. Each infectious disease has its own specific signs and symptoms. General signs and symptoms common to a number of infectious diseases include fever, diarrhea, fatigue and muscle aches. Medical diagnosis is the process of monitoring which evidence or expression explains a person's symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests may identify organisms directly (e.g., visually, using a microscope growing the organism in culture) or indirectly (e.g., identifying antibodies to the organism). General types of tests include microscopy, culture and immunologic tests (agglutination tests such as latex agglutination, enzyme immunoassays, western blot, precipitation tests and complement fixation tests) and nucleic acid/ non nucleic acid based identification methods. Sub types of diagnoses include clinical, laboratory, radiology, principal and admitting diagnosis. Advanced methods have been implemented to diagnose the infection in any part of the body. Examples include biomarkers/ ELISA test/ chest x ray/ skin biopsy/ tympanometry and tympanocentesis. The asset of testimony, however are often greatly dominated by the cost, as often there is no specific treatment, the cause is obvious, or the outcome of an infection is benevolent.
Immunology of infections depicts the battle between pathogens and the host immune system. Immunology is the branch of science concerned with the various aspects related to immune system, innate and acquired immunity. It also deals with laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies. The innate immune system provides early defense and induces an adaptive response to kill the foreign invaders and enact long-term immunological memory.
An emerging infectious disease (EID) is a contagious disease whose occurrence has boosted in the last 50 years and chances are there that it could increase in the coming future. Emerging infections account for at least 15% of all human pathogens. EIDs are caused by freshly identified strains that may have emerged from a known infection or transferred to a new community or to a field undergoing conserves metamorphosis, or remerging infections. Of thriving concern are adverse synergistic communication between emerging diseases and other infectious and non-infectious conditions ruling to the evolution of unusual syndemics. Many emerging diseases are zoonotic or synoptic - an animal receptacle incubates the organism, with only random conveyance into human populations. Infectious Diseases square amplitude ataxia caused by microorganism such as viruses, fungi or parasites. Infectious diseases is also, foodborne, vector borne, air borne in related as further more in plants and animals. They essentially affirm on the pathological approach of the microorganism and their therapeutic amplifications, synthesis of division of particularly clinical and diagnostic biology that deals with the cure endurance of the contagious diseases. It exemplifies associate degree progressively mandatory for human pessimism and fatality reason throughout the map.
STD-AIDS 2018 is the stage to pick up and share the information in the new Medical improvements alongside the fields of STI and HIV/AIDS. This conference brings together Doctors, Professors, Researchers, Scientists, Microbiologists, Bacteriologists, Virologists, Associations and Societies, Epidemiologists, Health care professionals, Research scholars, Medical colleges, Infectious Diseases Researchers, Viral Diseases Researchers, Pharmacists, Physicians, academia, students in all the areas of STD-AIDS and provides an international forum for the spreading of approved research results, new ideas and practical developments. We are honored to invite you all to attend for the ‘International Conference on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases’ which is going to be held during September 03-04, 2018 in Bangkok, Thailand.
The organizing committee is preparing for an exciting and instructive gathering program including plenary lectures, symposia, prompt keynote displays, Oral talks on an assortment of subjects, poster presentations, exhibitions and different projects for participants from everywhere throughout the world. We invite you to join us at the prestigious conference STD-AIDS 2018, where you will be sure to have a meaningful experience with scholars and eminent personalities from around the world. All members of the STD-AIDS 2018 organizing committee are looking forward to meeting you in Bangkok, Thailand.
Importance & Scope:
In the past few decades, AIDS is one of the major problems across the world. It has been reported that by the end of 1999, the AIDS epidemic had left behind a cumulative total of 11.2 million orphans, defined as children who have lost their mothers before reaching the age of 15 (UNAIDS, 1999). The World Health Organization further estimates that 5.3 million people, including 600,000 children under age of 15, became infected with the virus that causes AIDS this year (Olson, 2000). Specifically, the data coming out of the Caribbean region show that HIV/AIDS has been moving into younger and younger population groups. About of% 83 AIDS cases are diagnosed in people between the ages of 15 and 54 and almost half of these cases are diagnosed in people 23 to 34 years old. Mindful of the links between health behavior and the context of family and culture, the authors maintain that intervention strategies in West Indian communities like Grenada must take into account the broader cultural context. The goal is to set the contextual framework for the development of culturally responsive HIV/AIDS education and prevention programs targeted to young people and adolescents. Specific strategies for working with parents and adolescents from this cultural group are recommended. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 1.2 million people are infected with HIV in the United States and that 1 in 5 (20 percent) are unaware that they are infected. In 2010, over 47,000 people were newly diagnosed with HIV, the majority was men. HIV disease is over-spoken to in the African-American people group: African-Americans make up just about one-portion of the recently analyzed cases, followed by Whites and Hispanics.
Compelling medications have significantly decreased the quantity of deaths from AIDS since peak years of the epidemic (1993– 1998); be that as it may, more than 17,000 individuals still died from AIDS-related ailments in 2009. Truth be told, even among those determined to have HIV, a significant extent don't get legitimate care or stay in treatment (see figure). Also, the pattern of individuals living longer with HIV shows new, long -term health services challenges for this population.
The topics to be covered by STD-AIDS include, but are not limited to:
- STD & STI
- HIV/ AIDS
- Understanding and Identifying HIV
- Infertility & Birth Defects
- HIV & Cancer
- HIV & Cardiovascular Disease
- Trichomoniasis, Syphilis
- HIV in Women
- HIV & Bone Damage
- HIV & Aging
- Sex Worker Health & Rights
- Current Focus on Virology
- Lived Experience of HIV
- Awareness & Knowledge
- Prevention & Treatment
- Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission
- Case Study: Infectious Disease & HIV
- Drug Discovery & Research
- Vaccines & Vaccination
Bangkok has been Thailand's predominant city since the eighteenth century. Established as the capital in 1767 after the fall of the ancient city of Ayutthaya, Bangkok is located on one of southeastern Asia's most important rivers, the Chao Phraya. In the 1990s, Bangkok experienced fast modernization, developing to around ten million individuals, making this the main significant city in a nation of towns and residential communities. Bangkok's ancient palaces and Buddhist temples contrast with high rises and traffic jams. Dense air pollution blankets the city. In fact, police directing traffic are required to wear masks. In any case, regardless of present day issues, Bangkok is a noteworthy vacationer goal, drawing a large number of guests every year.According to the Tourism Authority of Thailand, Thailand received 30 million tourists, of which up to 16 million or 53%, came for medical and wellness treatments. Tourists who specifically sought medical treatments came in at 857,086 and about 15 million came for wellness (for a wide range of services from massage to health food). International patients are from the Middle East countries such as Oman and United Arab Emirates, Cambodia, Myanmar, China, U.S. and European countries. Private hospitals in Bangkok serve more than 43% of medical tourists coming to Asia. Thailand’s medical device market was estimated at $1.259 billion in 2016 and is expected to grow at least 10% in 2017. In 2016, imports of medical devices increased 10.4% and exports of medical devices increased 7%, reflecting steady growth in Thailand’s healthcare sector despite the global and domestic economic downturn. As a market leader, U.S. device makers provide approximately one-fourth of the imported medical devices. The Thai medication market will keep on growing through 2020 and new laws and infection patterns give astounding chances to remote pharmaceutical organizations to succeed.
Universities in Bangkok:
- Kasetsart University
- Chulalongkorn University
- King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
- Thammasat University
- Sripatum University
- Assumption University
- Srinakharinwirot University
- King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
- National Institute of Development Administration
- King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok
- Silpakorn University
- Ramkhamhaeng University
- University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce
- Bangkok University
- Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University
Market in Thailand:
In Asia, Thailand stays one of the nation’s hardest hit by the HIV scourge. Currently, 440,000 people are living with HIV and approximately 1,250 people die each year from HIV-related causes. Thailand’s population of more than 60 million, in 2016 it was estimated that 450,000 people were living with HIV and that 6,400 people died of AIDS-related illnesses. After sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific is the region with the largest number of people living with HIV, with Thailand accounting for approximately 9%. Although the HIV epidemic is declining, certain groups have much higher rates of HIV compared to the general population. Those most affected are men who have sex with men, male and female sex workers, transgender people and people who inject drugs. Spouses of these populations and people living with HIV, migrant workers and prisoners are also more vulnerable to HIV than others.
· Thailand has one of the biggest HIV prevalences in Asia and the Pacific, representing 9% of the locale's aggregate HIV populace.
· Thailand hopes to be one of the first countries to end aids by 2030, however to achieve this more must be done to target young people and key affected populations.
· Thailand is the first country to effectively eliminate mother to child transmissions, with a transmission rate of less than 2%.
· Despite the fact that the pandemic is in decay, predominance stay high among key influenced gatherings.
An investigation has demonstrated that almost 10 million individuals stayed away from HIV transmission in view of early intercession programs with key influenced populaces in the vicinity of 1990 and 2010. Between 2005 and 2016, AIDS-related deaths declined by almost two thirds. There were 6,400 new HIV infections in Thailand in 2016. Most will have happened through unprotected sex, which is assessed to represent 90% of all new HIV diseases. Unsafe injecting drug use is the second biggest transmission route. Although the country is often praised for its highly successful efforts to curb the spread of HIV among sex workers and their clients, particularly through the world-renowned 100% Condom Use Program, its response to HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been limited. The prevalence of HIV among MSM has risen sharply from around 6% in the late 1990s to as high as 20-30% currently, and continues to grow. From 2012-2016, it is estimated that 39,000 people will be infected with HIV in Thailand. MSM make up 44% of these new HIV cases, with around 33% of the contaminations happening in Bangkok. The proportion of MSM among new HIV cases could go as high as 59% within the next 10 years, according to estimates made by the Asian Epidemic Model. The most astounding predominance among transients in Thailand was found in the angling business, with rates of 2% among anglers and 2.3% among fishery laborers, contrasted with HIV commonness of 1.1% and 0.74% among assembly line laborers and homestead specialists, separately.
A 2015 investigation of youngsters from key influenced populaces discovered testing rates to shift broadly between bunches – from a low of 12% (youthful female sex specialists situated in Chiang Mai) to a high of 73% (young fellows who engage in sexual relations with men situated in Bangkok). Overall, it found young female sex workers to be the least likely to test. New methodologies have been acquainted with increment access to and interest for HTC among key influenced populaces, including the accompanying:
· Implementing community-based HTC to expand outreach work
· Ensuring that HTC outlets provide same-day results.
Thailand provides antiretroviral treatment (ART) for free as part of the country’s universal health insurance scheme. It is one of only two countries in Asia and the Pacific that has more than 50% of people living with HIV on ART, the other being Cambodia. In 2016, 68% of adults who are eligible for treatment were receiving it, alongside more than 86% of children.
Thailand’s future of HIV and AIDS:
In spite of the fact that Thailand gained gigantic ground with HIV aversion in the 1990s, the decrease in HIV pervasiveness has backed off lately. Access to prevention services and behaviour-change communication hasn’t been enough to significantly reduce the rate of new infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. NAC's 2015-2019 technique expresses that Thailand will be one of the main nations on the planet to effectively end AIDS by 2030, and the principal nation in the area. Indeed, from 2015 the Ministry of Public Health increased its budget to prepare for implementing its strategy to end AIDS. Its spending commitments must remain a focus if real progress is to be made.
Furthermore, to be in with a real chance of ending AIDS by 2030, Thailand will need to give significant focus to new and innovative strategies to reach both young people and key affected populations, particularly men who have sex with men.
Market Growth in Thailand:
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Thailand’s GDP based on Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) exceeded $1.1 trillion dollars in 2016, making Thailand the second largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia, which has a GDP (PPP) of $3 trillion. In 2016, Thailand’s GDP grew by 3.2%, compared to 1.6% in the US and 2% in the European Union (IMF). The Asian Development Bank predicts Thailand’s GDP will grow 3.5% and 3.6% in 2017 and 2018, respectively.
Thailand imported over $2.2 billion in pharmaceuticals in 2016, a significant increment from $1.8 billion only two years back. In 2016, over 65% of Thailand’s pharmaceutical imports came from the United States, Europe, and Canada. Germany was the biggest pharmaceutical exporter to Thailand, trailed by the US, France, at that point Switzerland. The Thai pharmaceutical market was valued at over $5 billion in 2016, making it the second largest market in Southeast Asia. The estimation of Thailand's pharmaceutical market is relied upon to twofold by 2020. Pharmaceutical sales per-capita is also predicted to grow from $75 in 2016 to $125 by 2024.Hospitals purchase over two-thirds of all pharmaceuticals sold in Thailand and primarily purchase generics and prescription pharmaceuticals, compared to drugstores which sell over-the-counter (OTC) products. Thailand has one of the biggest restorative tourism advertises on the planet, and more than two million outside patients have flown out to the nation every year since 2013. The continued growth of Thailand’s medical tourism industry has further increased the demand for pharmaceuticals.
Major Universities in Thailand:
- Kasetsart University
- Mahidol University
- Chulalongkorn University
- Chiang Mai University
- Naresuan University
- Khon Kaen University
- Suranaree University of Technology
- Prince of Songkla University
- King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
- Thammasat University
- Burapha University
- Sripatum University
- Assumption University
- Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi
- Srinakharinwirot University
- Asian Institute of Technology
- King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang
- Buriram Rajabhat University
- Huachiew Chalermprakiet University
- National Institute of Development Administration
Market in Asia:
Asia and the Pacific is the area with the second most astounding number of individuals living with HIV on the planet – an expected 5.1 million out of 2015. Three countries - China, India and Indonesia – account for around three-quarters of the total number of people living with HIV in the region. In 2015, there were an estimated 300,000 new infections in the region. Though the period 2010 – 2015 saw an overall decline of 5% in new infections, progress in reducing new infections has slowed in recent years and new HIV infections are on the rise in some countries. The epidemic is largely characterized by concentrated and growing epidemics in a variety of countries, particularly among key affected populations including men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who inject drugs and transgender people. Low national prevalence masks much higher prevalence among these groups and in specific locations, particularly urban areas.
The HIV plague fluctuates broadly from nation to nation and inside specific nations relying upon setting. This highlights the importance of tailoring responses to each country context. UNAIDS suggests that a ‘location and population’ approach would maximize the impact of scarce resources. Progress in tackling the epidemic varies by geographical area. The pestilences in South and South-East Asia are diminishing, while in East Asia, HIV diseases are rising.
According to the report Asia Pacific HIV Therapeutics Market, published by Market Data Forecast, the market is projected to reach USD 2.52 billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 2.1% from 2016 to 2021. Asia restorative tourism advertise is expected to cross US$ 14 Billion stamp by 2022.
Asia Pacific HIV Therapeutics Market:
Drivers & Restraints
Innovative advancement in HIV diagnosis and therapeutics, increasing number of HIV affected cases and increase in research exercises for developing HIV immunizations are some of the factors driving the market. In addition, expanding mindfulness about the openness of HIV therapeutics in the market and practical steady medicines for HIV is further driving the HIV therapeutics showcase. However, there is a lack of experts and there is no surety of the treatment if it is to work on everyone. Limited medications are another restraint of the market.
Asia Pacific HIV Therapeutics Market:
Segmentation By drug class
- Integrase inhibitor
- Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
- Non-nucleoside turn around transcriptase inhibitor
- HIV-1 protease inhibitor
- Pharmacokinetic enhancer
Men who have sex with men (MSM)
Men who engage in sexual relations with men are one of the key influenced populaces in Asia and the Pacific. In 2015, HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men was higher than 5% in nine of the 19 countries that reported data. Urban areas, for example, Bangkok in Thailand, Yangon in Myanmar and Yogyakarta in Indonesia have assessed HIV predominance rates of in the vicinity of 20% and 29%. One study carried out in Bangkok found that HIV incidence among those aged 18 to 21 was more than double the incidence among men over 30. Around half of all men who engage in sexual relations with men in the district are under 25.
People who inject drugs (PWID)
One third of all people who inject drugs (sometimes referred to as PWID) live in Asia and the Pacific. HIV prevalence among this population varies greatly across Asia and the Pacific. In 2015, 20 – 65% of all new grown-up HIV contaminations were among individuals who infuse medicates in Afghanistan, Myanmar, Pakistan and Vietnam. Evidence clearly highlights the link between using clean needles and injecting equipment, and low HIV prevalence. In Katmandu, Nepal, increases in the use of safe needles led to a dramatic reduction in HIV prevalence - from 68% in 2002 to 6.3% in 2011. In Asia and the Pacific, the incarceration rate of people who inject drugs is very high. Combined with a negligible number of harm reduction programmes in prisons, this fuels the HIV epidemic both in prisons and among drug users.
HIV remains a critical concern for many transgender populations across Asia. Especially high HIV pervasiveness rates have been found among transgender populaces in urban areas, for example, Delhi (49%) and Mumbai (42%) in India, and Phnom Penh (37%) in Cambodia. For a lot of these cities, HIV prevalence is much higher among transgender populations in comparison to men who have sex with men. Transgender populations are very often isolated by societies in many Asian and Pacific countries. This has serious knock on effects for obtaining both health-related information and also developing health policies and programmes that effectively support this key affected population.
Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT)
Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) has been significantly scaled-up across Asia and the Pacific. The period between 2009 and 2015 saw a decline of 30% in new HIV infections among children. However, PMTCT treatment coverage throughout the region remains shockingly low at 19%, much lower than other regions of the world including sub-Saharan Africa (59%) and the global average of 62%. Some countries in Asia and the Pacific have made significant progress in PMTCT treatment access including Cambodia (75.3%), Malaysia (85.5%) and Myanmar (90.2%). Furthermore, AIDS-related deaths among children have declined, dropping from 18,000 in 2004 to 15,000 in 2009.
Malaysia is one example of a country that has made substantial progress with its PMTCT programme, increasing treatment coverage from 68.5% in 2012 to nearly 85.5% in 2013. MTCT rates have also declined, from 18% in 2012 to 8% in 2013. Malaysia demonstrates a clear commitment to eliminating new infections among infants and is leading the way in HIV prevention interventions, ensuring more pregnant mothers living with HIV are receiving the lifesaving treatment they need.
The HIV epidemic in Asia and the Pacific is complicated, with each country epidemic very different. However, there are some commonalities that highlight areas of critical concern, namely the rising HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men and low HIV treatment coverage. Addressing the legal barriers that increase stigma and discrimination as well as promoting more supportive policies needs to be nationally prioritised for most countries across the region.
A further challenge is ensuring that funding for the response is sustained. Domestic funding for national HIV responses has increased across Asia and the Pacific in the face of dwindling donor support for the HIV response. In 2014, an estimated US$ 2.4 billion was spent on the HIV response in the region. Countries including China, Malaysia and Thailand are leading the way, nationally funding between 89% to 99% of their HIV responses. The challenge ahead will be for more countries to increase their domestic spending on HIV, ensure that their national responses are sustainable, include prevention and effectively target populations most at risk of HIV.
Major Universities in Asia:
- The University of Tokyo
- Fudan University
- Shanghai Jiao Tong University
- National Taiwan University
- Kyoto University
- Peking University
- National University of Singapore
- Keio University
- Tsinghua University
- The University of Hong Kong
- The Chinese University of Hong Kong
- University of Delhi
- Seoul National University
- Nanyang Technological University
- Osaka University
- Nanjing University
- Zhejiang University
- National Chiao Tung University
- The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
- Tohoku University
- Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- King Saud University
- University of Tehran
- University of Tsukuba
- The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Market over the World:
That HIV infection and AIDS have become a major worldwide public health problem is an excepted fact of life these days. Certainly, the importance, danger and costs of HIV/AIDS cannot be understated or underestimated. While we are fortunate that the dire predictions of the mid-1980s have not come to pass -- at least for the United States and Europe -- the impact of HIV/AIDS of world society is still highly significant. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight off infection and diseases. HIV infection eventually results in AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). This conversion to AIDS may result after 12 or 13 years after the initial infection. Initial HIV symptoms are similar to those of the flu and include fatigue, fever, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin. Although there is currently no cure for HIV infection, a combination of medications called Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART), and now referred to as AART, helps prolong life in many people. As noted above, person with HIV infection may live for many years before developing any signs of AIDS. While HIV/AIDS isn’t found in the headlines as much as during the disease’s discovery, more people in the United States are living with HIV/AIDS than ever before. While the incidence of HIV infection in the United States was approximately 0.25% of the population ten to fifteen years ago, it is now approximately 0.47% -- and the population in general has grown. For this reason, it is important to understand the trends in HIV/AIDS epidemiology and the potential impacts on economies and societies as a whole. These trends emphasize the strategic need for preventive approaches, clinical testing technologies and products and new therapeutics. Many market research reports provide such information.
The global HIV/AIDS market, including branded products and generics, was valued at $11.3 billion in 2010. This market is expected to reach $11.8 billion in 2011 and increase at a 4.6% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the 2011-2016 forecast periods to reach $14.1 billion in 2016. The rising prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases has upped the demand for effective drugs. To capitalize on the prevailing trend, a majority of the market players are focusing on research and development activities. Favorable government policies and recent initiatives have further provided boost to their plans of expanding product portfolio, finds Transparency Market Research (TMR) in a new study. According to the report, companies such as Bayer Healthcare, Hoffmann La Roche, Pfizer INC, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Gilead Sciences, AbbVie, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Eli Lilly, and Merck & Co., Inc. currently exhibit a strong market presence. Strategies adopted by these companies often prove prolific subsequently influencing the overall market forces.
The global sexually transmitted diseases drug market is slated for an impressive growth in the coming years. The rising incidence of unprotected sex has upped the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, in turn fuelling the demand for effective drugs and treatment procedures. Besides this, the rising awareness among patients as a result of favorable government initiatives and proliferation of educational campaigns has helped the market gain immense impetus in the recent past. Also, lifestyle choices such as having several casual sex partners have spurred the prevalence of STDs worldwide, subsequently, fuelling the demand for sexually transmitted diseases drugs. According to TMR, the global sexually transmitted diseases drug market is forecast to exhibit a CAGR of 11.2% between 2017 and 2025. At this pace, the market is expected to reach US$83,041.3 mn by the end of 2025, from its valuation of US$32,826.3 mn in 2016. Among various therapy classes, antibiotics have emerged as one of the most frequently prescribed products in modern medicine. Regionally, North America emerged dominant, holding the largest share in the global sexually transmitted diseases drug market in 2016.
Over the course of the forecast period, the global STD drug market is likely to witness impressive growth. Factors such as recent technological advancements leading to precise diagnosis have also spurred the need for effective sexually transmitted diseases drugs. Such demand is directed at achieving speedy disease remission. Also introduction of government reforms and improvement in healthcare infrastructure provide an ideal environment, conducive to the market’s expansion. According to the report, the market is expected to witness much lucrative prospects in Asia Pacific and the Middle East and Africa. Also the rising per capita income of patients and their willingness to spend on advanced medications will augur well for the global sexually transmitted diseases drug market. “The market will significantly benefit from the launch of novel diagnostics and steps taken by governments to boost the healthcare infrastructure,” added a lead TMR analyst. Overall, the rising incidence of various infections such as syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus, cancroid, vaginitis, and trichomonas vaginalis is expected to fuel he demand for sexually transmitted diseases drugs in the coming years.
The report segments the global sexually transmitted diseases drugs market as:
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Drug Market, by Disease Type
- Genital herpes
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Drug Market, by Therapy Class
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Drug Market, by Distribution Channel
- Hospital Pharmacies
- Online Pharmacies
- Retail Pharmacies
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Drug Market, by Geography
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Latin America
- Middle East & Africa
This review is based on a report, titled “Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Drug Market (Disease Type – Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Genital herpes, HPV, and HIV / AIDS; Therapy Class– Antibiotics, Antiviral / Antiretrovirals, and Vaccines) – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast, 2017–2025.”
- The Global Fund
- Center for AIDS Research, UC San Diego
- The Elton John AIDS Foundation
- Treatment Action Campaign
- The Rush Foundation
- ViiV Healthcare
- GeoVax Labs, Inc.
- Delaney AIDS Research Enterprise (DARE)
- AIDS Research Alliance
- Bristol-Myers Squibb
- Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research
- UC San Diego AIDS Research Institute
- The Scripps Research Institute